Race historical definitions During the Age of Enlightenment an era from the s to the sconcepts of monogenism and polygenism became popular, though they would only be systematized epistemologically during the 19th century. Monogenism contends that all races have a single origin, while polygenism is the idea that each race has a separate origin.
The inquiry also found that institutional racism was apparent in several aspects of the investigation. They adopted the definition used today. A CI may appear to come from nowhere, but usually there are warning signs. The incident may be part of a wider multi-agency response and have far reaching consequences, in which case partners will follow the Joint Emergency Service Interoperability Principles.
Three phases of critical incident management An incident which has the likelihood to escalate into a critical incident should be addressed promptly and efficiently. Reassuring and maintaining confidence is fundamental to managing a CIas is restoring confidence where it has been lost.
A three-phased approach is set out in this module. When managing a CIthis advice should be read in conjunction with other relevant advice and guidance.
It includes processes to ensure incidents are notified to the most appropriate person, and that they are managed effectively. Characteristics of critical incidents Thousands of incidents happen every year. Many are dealt with well but some are not. Community impact A CI may have a significant and potentially long-term impact on community engagement and neighbourhood policing.
It may also generate insecurity among vulnerable members of the community and increase fear of crime and disorder. Review of critical incidents A review in looked at a number of cases which, although not labelled as critical at the time displayed characteristics that mean they would now be declared a CI.
These characteristics can be divided into five broad areas. They usually develop because of several factors which separately may have little or no impact, but have a significant impact when compounded. Decisions, errors and avoiding decisions There is a growing body of research which focuses on police decision making during critical incident management.
It tries to shed light on how people might make mistakes when assessing difficult situations, and how this can lead incident commanders to pursue a course of action that might hinder the successful management of an incident. In addition, there is fresh understanding about why some commanders might excessively delay or avoid making a decision even when it is clear, both at the time and later, that a decision was needed.
Incorporating learning Chief officers need to be aware of the findings of this research and ensure that their critical incident commanders at operational, tactical and strategic levels understand the factors involved in effective decision making. Improving accountability Understanding the factors affecting decision making will help officers to account more clearly for the decisions they make, and to identify what was done to mitigate common errors.
This will reduce the fear of excessive accountability, which may prevent officers from making a decision at all. Types of critical incidents The cases used in the review could suggest that critical incidents are usually high profile, serious or related to homicide.
It is important to remember that this is not always the case and some involve incidents such as missing persons or bullying.What’s notable about these reminders of racism is the psychological toll that it takes on its victims both directly and indirectly (e.g., by-way of media coverage).
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There is a growing body of research which focuses on police decision making during critical incident management.
This suggests that cognitive bias (a person’s pre-determined and unconscious thought process) affects decision making. Positive Psychology Program brings you: Free Positive Psychology E-books, Videos, Quotes, Articles, PDF's, On- and Offline Courses & Downloads. We are the peak body for psychologists in Australia and represent over 23, members.
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