Such interactions across cultures often times can be difficult even in the best of situations. In many cultures, what is considered acceptable interactions in one culture often times translates as inappropriate and rude interaction in another culture. A review of the literature demonstrates there is no culturally acceptable standardized practice protocol for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse to disseminate such information to their patients.
Received Jan 30; Accepted Apr This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Mothers with low BSES-SF scores stop exclusive breastfeeding prematurely, but specific interventions can prevent that undesirable outcome. Because those interventions can be expensive, often one must decide which mothers will receive them.
Therefore, we aimed to assess the overall accuracy of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, and to choose an appropriate cut-off score for making that prediction.
Methods This is a secondary data analysis of an intervention study. Data from women in two non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals were analyzed. Participants were women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge.
Breastfeeding status was assessed 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. Results For both of the ROC curves 4 and 12 weeks postpartum the area under the curve was 0. To obtain a high sensitivity, a cut-off score of Breastfeeding self efficacy scale short form bses sf was chosen.
Conclusion In conclusion, the BSES-SF has moderate overall accuracy to distinguish women who will not practice exclusive breastfeeding after discharge from those who will. At non-Baby-Friendly hospitals in Japan, interventions to support exclusive breastfeeding might be considered for new mothers who have BSES-SF scores that are less than or equal to Introduction Despite the proven benefits of exclusive breastfeeding [ 12 ], many mothers cease it prematurely.
Breastfeeding self-efficacy can affect breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity, and it is modifiable [ 6 — 10 ]. Interventions targeting those four factors can enhance breastfeeding self-efficacy, and also breastfeeding duration and exclusivity [ 9101314 ]. BSES-SF data are collected via a self-administered questionnaire, which has been translated from English into various languages, including Japanese [ 15 — 19 ].
Results of psychometric tests of the BSES-SF indicate that it can be used in various cultures and with women of various ages. Mothers with lower BSES-SF scores are more likely to wean their babies from exclusive breastfeeding prematurely than are mothers with higher scores [ 815161819 ].
A longitudinal study with Japanese pregnant women, which included reliability testing and validation testing, indicated that the Japanese version of the BSES-SF could be used to measure breastfeeding self-efficacy. Women were significantly more likely to discontinue exclusive breastfeeding by 4 weeks postpartum if they had a BSES-SF score lower than the sample mean [ 16 ].
Therefore, those scores can be used to predict which mothers will stop breastfeeding prematurely, and additional interventions can be offered to those mothers. By using a cut-off point, health professionals can identify mothers who need additional breastfeeding support for exclusive breastfeeding.
To the best of our knowledge, no such cut-off point has yet been proposed. The percentage of mothers who practice exclusive breastfeeding is low, especially in non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals nBFH [ 10 ].
Thus, we aimed to determine a cut-off point for scores obtained before discharge to identify mothers in nBFHs who were at risk of discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding by 4 weeks and 12 weeks postpartum. We also sought to assess the overall performance of BSES-SF scores as predictors of not practicing exclusive breastfeeding after discharge.
Materials and Methods Study design This was a secondary analysis of data collected in a self-efficacy intervention study. Those data were collected between August and January in Japan [ 10 ]. For the present study we used data collected from the women at nBFHs.
Data from the women at BFHs was not used to avoid influence from the self-efficacy intervention.
While 2, facilities provide medical care for delivery in Japan [ 20 ], only 75 have been certified as BFH [ 21 ]. A cut-off determined using data from nBFH would therefore be generalizable to the majority of women in Japan.
All of the eligible participants were pregnant women in their third trimester who were 16 years of age or older, were able to read and write Japanese, were expected to have a singleton birth, and had completed the BSES-SF before discharge.
Exclusion criteria were as follows: Further details of the larger study in which these data were collected have been published elsewhere [ 10 ]. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaire. Women who read a booklet describing the detail of the study and agreed to participate in the study returned the completed questionnaire.
The Research Ethics Committee approved the inclusion of minors without parental consent because: All the items are presented positively and their scores are summed to produce a total score ranging from 14 to 70 [ 8 ]. Higher total scores indicate higher levels of breastfeeding self-efficacy.
In this study, we were not concerned with breastfeeding practices during hospitalization, so we measured post-discharge exclusive breastfeeding, which we defined as not giving infants any foods or liquids other than breast milk after discharge from the hospital.
Characteristics of the mothers To understand the characteristics of the participants, factors known to be associated with breastfeeding were measured during pregnancy or before discharge through self-administered questionnaires. We also collected data on intentions regarding infant feeding for the first five-to-six months [ 624 ], attitude to infant feeding [ 627 ] Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale score [ 27 ]symptoms of depression [ 23 ] Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score [ 2829 ]and general family support [ 2224 ] Family Apgar score [ 30 ].The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Psychometric Assessment of the Short Form Cindy-Lee Dennis Objective: The purpose of this study was to reduce the number of items on the original Breast-feeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) and psychometri-cally assess the revised BSES–Short Form (BSES-SF).
ing—Self-efficacy—Short form . Refinement of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale – Development of the Short-Form Although psychometric support for the validity and reliability of the BSES was established with Dr.
Psychometric Testing of the Breastfeeding SelfEfficacy Scale with Diverse Populations 1. the BSES was psychometrically tested among Australian mothers. The Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale–Short Form (BSES–SF) was originally designed to assess a mother's confidence in her ability to breastfeed.
Fathers play an important role in supporting their breastfeeding partner and their self-efficacy may also influence breastfeeding outcomes. To measure breastfeeding self-efficacy, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) was developed in Canada in BSES-SF data are collected via a self-administered questionnaire, which has been translated from English into various languages, including Japanese [ 15 – 19 ].
The objectives of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of a Malay-version questionnaire Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF.
Breastfeeding Self- Efficacy Scale–Short Form (BSES-SF; Dennis, ) 10 Canada To assess levels of self- efficacy in postpartum women; To identify women at risk of early breastfeeding cessation.